Differences Between Damask, Brocade, and Jacquard

Often times, uneducated individuals use the terms damask, brocade, and Jacquard interchangeably with one another. It can often confuse those who are unfamiliar with the world of fabrics. Jacquard is a decorative or woven pattern that is created by using a Jacquard attachment on a loom. The attachment resembles the punch card on a piano. It is purported to offer better versatility and fabric control for the operator of the loom. The Jacquard technique can be applied to a variety of fabrics, and it is commonly used on brocade and damask fabrics. It is commonly used in a variety of apparel and home goods, from tablecloths to bedding.

Brocade is defined as a lavishly decorated, shuttle woven fabric. It is primarily woven from silk; although, it is possible to find brocade constructed from a blend of silk and synthetic fibers. Often, it will be embroidered with gold or silver thread. Brocade can trace its origins back to India, where weaving is a traditional art form. It is typically woven on a loom, and it may or may not be woven using the Jacquard technique. It is also characterized by the manner in which the brocaded or broached parts of the fabric hang in loose groups or are clipped away. Although the scenes and patterns on brocade appear to have been embroidered, the scenes are actually woven into the fabric using advanced weaving techniques that involve manipulating the weft and weave of the fabric. The most common types of scenes depicted on brocade fabric are those of floral prints.

Damask, similarly to brocade, is a fabric that features woven scenes of floral patterns, intricate geometric designs, or simple scenes of domestic life. It may be woven of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers. However, it is most commonly created from silk. It is primarily different from brocade in the fact that its woven fabric pattern is reversible, while that of brocade is not. Similarly, shorter weft patterns in damask allow for more subtle effects in the fabric to be created as it plays off of shadow and light. Damask weaves also contain a higher thread count than that of brocade. Double damask weaves are the highest quality of damask produced; however, it is also the most expensive.

Different Types of A Financial Calculator To Choose From

If you are making some financial goals for the future, whether it has to do with your mortgage, investments, car loans or even managing your debt, being able to calculate things like your returns, the time period for which you need to save or how much you need to save is important.

With the various resources now available to you via the internet, you no longer have to wait on a meeting with the experts to give you the information you need. Instead, you can now use the resources available to you online to get started today.

One of the most important resources that you will find online as it relates to planning your financial future is a financial or money calculator. There are many different types available, and so you will need to choose the one appropriate to you based on your area of interest.

Mortgage Calculator: This calculator can be used to determine your monthly payments based on the interest rate and terms of your mortgage. As a result, you will find that there are different versions of this calculator available. There is a calculator for fixed mortgages and also one for adjustable rate mortgages. There is even a calculator that will help you to compare the two different types of mortgages to see which will suit you best. In addition, if you are thinking about refinancing or buying a new home, there is a mortgage calculator that will help you to determine the terms which will be most favorable to your situation.

Car Loans: This calculator will help to give you the confidence you need when dealing with the dealer of your car financing. You can use this calculator to check the terms of your loan and determine your monthly payments. In addition, you can also use the car loan calculator to compare various loans and choose the one with terms most appropriate for you.

Credit Cards: Today many persons are consolidating their credit card debts in order to pay off their credit card loans faster and also to be more consistent. You can use this type of financial calculator to help you determine the amount that you will need to pay in order to complete the payment of your credit cards by a set date. You can also use this calculator to help you see the difference it will make if you choose to make fixed payments to your credit cards instead of just paying the minimum amount.

Investing: If you are thinking about investing or have started to do so, financial calculators will help you to determine the amount you need to save in order to reach your goal. It can also be used to determine the amount that your investment will earn over time.

There is also a calculator for retirement planning, managing your debt and your personal finance. Basically, any type of calculator that you need to plan your financial future can be found online. The calculators are also very easy to use and most of all they are free.

The Hopi and Their Jewelry

Hopi Silver Overlay Jewelry

The jewelry of the Hopi has a style distinct from that of the other Native Americans. The Hopi are known for the use of silver overlay, which utilizes a technique of fusing two layers of silver. The eye-catching and often elaborate design is on the top layer, while the bottom layers serves as a base.

It was not so long ago that the Hopi developed this technique. In fact the Hopi were not much into the making of silver. In their relative isolation on the northeastern Arizona high plains, or mesas, they were somewhat firewalled (so to speak) against external influences. Even their interaction with other Native Americans was limited.

Silversmithing of Native Americans

So while the Navajo learned and developed their silversmithing skills, a technique brought to the south-west of the American continent by the Spaniards, and which was then taken up by the Zuni, the Hopi were still practicing their own artistic heritage based on weaving and pottery. They were also adept at the making of kachina dolls, for which they deservedly remain renowned.

Time, of course, would not stand still, and even reliably isolated communities began to open up. Trading and commerce grew and the Hopi through their interaction with the Zuni exposed them to the craft of silver jewelry, at which the Zuni were now skilled. Lanyade, a Zuni, learned his silversmithing from the Navajo, and began to sell his silver jewelry. He travelled among the Hopi and Sikyatala became his student in 1898.

Sikyatala

Sikyatala is credited to be the first Hopi silversmith. It is reported that while Lanyade was at the Hopi reservation for four months, making and selling his silver jewelry pieces, Sikyatala was studiously observing and learning from the master at close range.

Sikyatala then began to use the technique of making silver jewelry. Other Hopi also began to follow and emulate the work of Sikyatala. In time the Hopi developed their own style, that of using overlay silver.

Hopi Silversmiths Paul Saufie and Fred Kabote

This technique did not so much evolve as was created by the Hopi silversmiths Paul Saufkie and Fred Kabote who were involved in a program at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1938. After World War II the Hopi Guild was formed to encourage a program of silversmith training .

The designs of the silver overlay jewelry of the Hopi were also unique in that they adapted designs from the old broken pottery pieces of the 15th and 16th centuries. New motifs were also incorporated by the Hopi Guild, including kachina symbols.

The cross-currents in Native American jewelry nowdays mean that there are cross-influences as well. And different styles from the different currents may well find themselves evident in any piece of modern American Native jewelry.

But the fascinating development of Native American silversmiths and their crafts, in their different streams of artistic design, does not entirely obscure the original creativity. The silver overlay technique was the creation of the Hopi, even if it may now be employed by others.

Michael Kabotie

In ending, it may be noted that the work of Fred Kabote was continued by his son Michael Kabote (also spelled 'Kabotie'). Michael Kabotie recently passed away at the age of 67. He was a trail-blazer in the Native American fine arts movement, both as a Hopi artist and jeweler. His paintings were well-received, depicting traditional Hopi life. For a number of years, he also tapped the Hopi overlay technique at the Idyllwild Arts program in Southern California.

Learning Hebrew in Easy Steps

Learning the Hebrew language requires an investment of time and effort just like in the case of any other language. Hebrew is one of the oldest languages ​​in the world. Moreover; across the globe there are countless individuals who communicate in this language. Today the world is home to seven million individuals who speak Hebrew. It is the official language of the state of Israel as most of the Hebrew-speaking population is settled there. Hebrew can be segregated on the basis of modern and Biblical Hebrew due to the significant changes that have occurred in the language.

One of the major reasons why some people want to learn Hebrew is the fact that this language has a strong history which contributions people. Also, the Old Testament portion of the Bible was originally written in an ancient form of this language and there are countless other religious books that are available only in Hebrew.

How quickly students learn Hebrew depends on a lot of factors which also include the deduction of the student. The process of learning the Hebrew language can be augmented by:

1. Watching Hebrew movies

2. Reading Hebrew literature

3. Or even listening to Hebrew music etc.

There are many individuals who read children's story books in Hebrew to grasp the basics of the language and allow them to better understand the grammar and vocabulary. Those individuals who native language is not Hebrew or another Semantic language will find it difficult to learn in the beginning. However; as they understand the basics of the language better, they will realize that Hebrew grammar is logical and simple with fewer words than in other languages. Unlike English, this language is written from right to left and its script is called Rashi.

In almost all the online courses, the basic lessons in the Hebrew language start with their alphabet. There are twenty two letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The next stage covers the vowels which are referred to as the nikkud. Since the letters in the Hebrew language can be converted into vowels using tittles and dashes, it can become confusing for students; but with practice they will grasp a better understanding of the language.

Perfecting the pronunciation of Hebrew is the key to learning the language. This is the reason online lesson plans are supplemented with audio files to help students in pronouncing the letters and the words in the correct manner. These courses focus both on the correct usage of the vocabulary and grammar. Advanced Hebrew online courses make use of video and audio files to aid their students in understanding this language to their best.